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Schleswig-Holstein (German: [ˈʃleːsvɪç ˈhɔlʃtaɪn]) is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig. Its capital city is Kiel; other notable cities are Lübeck and Flensburg. The region is called Slesvig-Holsten in Danish and pronounced [ˌsle̝ːsvi ˈhʌlˌste̝ˀn]. In more dated English, it is also known as Sleswick-Holsatia. The Low German name is Sleswig-Holsteen, and the North Frisian name is Slaswik-Holstiinj. Historically, the name can also refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig-Holstein and the former South Jutland County (Northern Schleswig; now part of the Region of Southern Denmark) in Denmark. Schleswig was under Danish control beginning in the Viking Age, but escaped full control and became a duchy in the 12th century. It bordered Holstein, which was nominally a part of the Holy Roman Empire. From 1460, both Schleswig and Holstein were ruled together by a common Duke. In the 19th century it became the subject of an intractable political and territorial dispute: the Schleswig-Holstein Question. The "question" came to a head as Denmark tried to formally annex the area in 1848. Prussia, the leading German state before unification, balked at the attempt; it had some claim to the territory and the population was majority ethnic German. It invaded and began the First Schleswig War, which ended in a Danish victory and the 1852 London Protocol. This did not solve the issue for good: fighting broke out again in 1864 with the Second Schleswig War. The second war saw a German victory, with the territory being absorbed into Prussia. After the German defeat in World War I, the 1920 Schleswig plebiscites were held at the command of the Allies which resulted in the return of some territory to Denmark. After World War II, it took in over a million refugees. Schleswig-Holstein's economy is known for its agriculture, such as its Holstein cows. Its position on the Atlantic makes it a major trade point and shipbuilding site; it is also the location of the Kiel Canal. Offshore oil wells and wind farms produce significant amounts of energy. Fishing is a major industry and accounts for a unique local cuisine. It is a favorite tourist spot for Germans. Wikipedia ->
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