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Alberta () is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is part of Western Canada and is one of the three prairie provinces. English is the official language of the province. In 2016, 76.0% of Albertans were anglophone, 1.8% were francophone and 22.2% were allophone.Alberta is bordered by British Columbia to the west, Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories (NWT) to the north, and the U.S. state of Montana to the south. It is one of the only two landlocked provinces in Canada. The eastern part of the province is occupied by the Great Plains, while the western part borders the Rocky Mountains. The province has a predominantly continental climate but experiences quick temperature changes due to air aridity. Seasonal temperature swings are less pronounced in western Alberta due to occasional chinook winds.Alberta is the 6th largest province by area, being approximately 660,000 square kilometers, and the 4th most populous, being home to 4,067,175 people. Alberta's capital is Edmonton, while Calgary is its largest city. The two are Alberta's largest census metropolitan areas (CMAs) and both exceed 1 million people. More than half of Albertans live in either Edmonton or Calgary, which contributes to continuing the rivalry between the two cities. The province also has one other CMA, Lethbridge, and 15 census agglomerations. While the vast majority of Albertans are city dwellers, the identity of the province is mainly rooted in a rural lifestyle (rodeos, western, country music, cowboys). The oil and gas industry is also a part of the province's identity. Alberta's economy is based on hydrocarbons, petrochemical industries, livestock, agriculture and frontier technologies. The oil industry has been a pillar of Alberta's economy since 1947, when substantial oil deposits were discovered at Leduc No. 1 well. Since Alberta is the province most rich in hydrocarbons, it provides 70% of the oil and natural gas exploited on Canadian soil. In 2018, Alberta's output was CDN$338.2 billion, 15.27% of Canada's GDP.In the past, Alberta's political landscape hosted parties like the left-wing Liberals and the agrarian United Farmers of Alberta, as well as the right-wing Social Credit Party and the Progressive Conservatives. Today, Alberta is generally perceived as a conservative province. The longest political dynasty in Canada was held by the Progressive Conservatives from 1971 to 2015. Before becoming part of Canada, Alberta was home to several First Nations and was a territory used by fur traders of the Hudson's Bay Company. The lands that would become Alberta were acquired by Canada as part of the NWT on July 15, 1870. On September 1, 1905, Alberta was separated from the NWT as a result of the Alberta Act and designated the 8th province of Canada. From the late 1800s to early 1900s, many immigrants arrived, the biggest wave of which was pushed by Wilfrid Laurier, to prevent the prairies from being annexed by Americans. Massive oil resources were discovered in Alberta in 1947.Alberta is renowned for its natural beauty, richness in fossils and for housing important nature reserves. Alberta is home to six UNESCO World Heritage Sites: The Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks, Dinosaur Provincial Park, the Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump, Waterton–Glacier International Peace Park, Wood Buffalo National Park and Writing-on-Stone Provincial Park. Other popular sites include: Banff, Canmore, Drumheller, Jasper, Sylvan Lake and Lake Louise. Wikipedia ->
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